This book examines the relationship between administrative ideology and the logics of public administration research in the historical and institutional contexts of Korean public administration. I have mainly published books on public administration research methodology and the structure of the administrative theories. Based on these works, I would like to focus on the relationship between the issues in administrative ideology and the logics of public administration research in this book.
My ultimate academic interest is “Korean public administration.” I have spent a substantial amount of time preparing for the research, but I have not yet been able to carry out a satisfactory study to establish a systematic theory on Korean public administration. Thus, the current study aims to investigate, primarily, the Korean public administration and the study of public administration.
The books that I have been preparing for the study of Korean public administration are as follows.
The first is The Logic of Social Science Research: Focusing on Political Science and Public Administration (Pakyoungsa, 1981; 1995). This book aims to establish the logics of political science and public administration research by analyzing the system of the socalled mainstream social science methodology that was popular in the United States in the mid-20th century. In particular, the book attempts to assist in understanding the structure of the empirical theories of public administration. For that purpose, it explores the “paradigm” structure of empirical theories by organizing the theories considered to comprise a grand theory at the time, such as the political psychological theory, group theory, structural functionalism, communication theory, and systems theory. I believed that this paradigm system would help establish a foundation for public administration theory. A later revised version of this book includes a discussion of the perspectives from hermeneutics and critical theory that reflect the criticism of the empirical research methodology.
The second book is The Logic of Public Administration (Pakyoungsa, 2002; 2005). The aforementioned Logic of Social Science Research received an overwhelmingly favorable response from readers. However, it was also pointed out that its contents were considerably difficult. Therefore, this book summarized the contents of the first and focused more on public administration. This book aims to understand the overall structure of administrative theories by creating a heuristic framework that combines levels of analysis and a levels of context in relation to public administration research as well as the purpose and method of the research. Within this framework, the structure of the administrative theory that adopted the logics of the research in public administration studies is summarized. The logics of public administration research covered in this book comprise empirical research, hermeneutic research, and critical theoretical research. Although it was not dealt with as a part of the research logics, the issue of postmodernity in public administration is also mentioned herein.
The third is The Logic of Korean Public Administration (Pakyoungsa, 2005). This book summarizes some of the articles published by Korean public administration scholars since the 1950s based on the framework of the aforementioned The Logic of Public Administration. This book conceptualizes the logics of public administration research and, at the same time, analyzes the characteristic trends of the research results that Korean public administration scholars have mainly studied with interest. Therefore, this book could be considered The History of Korean Public Administration Studies.
The “preparation” mentioned above was used as a foundation to compile Evolving Administrative Ideology and Logics of Inquiry. Initially, I merely assumed that the contents of “administrative ideology” could be added to the existing and up-to-date review on the logics of the research. However, I felt unprepared to approach “administrative ideology” from broader temporal, cultural, and national scopes. Therefore, I decided to review only the relationship between administrative ideology and the logics of public administration research in the historical and institutional contexts of the Korean administration. In other words, I decided to review the historical characteristics of Korean politics and public administration which might have increased or lowered the validity of certain ideologies and logics of research when interacting with the institutional logics of the state of Korea.
The most significant difficulties faced in the development of this discussion were to differentiate “administrative ideology” from political philosophy and ideology and to distinguish among administrative philosophy, administrative value, administrative ideology, administrative doctrine, and administrative theory. Because I judged that the attempt to make a clear and decisive distinction among them was a challenge beyond the scope and purpose of this book, I decided to use a “working definition” of sorts for the discussion in this book. Here, the concept of “administrative ideology” is defined as “normative ideology that encompass the philosophy, ideology, and basic theory of administration.”
Despite this definition, it was difficult to identify administrative ideology in the existing research reports and Korean public administration data. There were even cases wherein I had to infer “administrative ideology” from popular theories at the time as well as from features highlighted in the interrelationship between the characteristics of different time periods and the corresponding institutional logics.
This book has been written according to the background and purpose detailed above and is primarily divided into two parts. Chapters 1 through 4 focus on constructing a framework to develop the argument of this book. The interplay of the historical context of the political system and institutional logics in Chapter 2 builds a framework for the narratives in Chapter 5 and onward. Chapter 3 discusses administrative ideology, and Chapter 4 summarizes basic views on research methodology. Furthermore, I believe that the previously mentioned books of the author can be used as references for the more specific content provided herein.
Chapter 5 was not described in a manner that fits the framework of this book, as it is organized based on the development process in the early stages of Korean public administration. Chapters 6 through 10 provide discussions that involve more specific data according to the framework of the argument and discussion herein.
Although this book was conceptualized in around 2006 and the writing began in 2007, I often had to stop writing. Every time I began writing again, there were changes in the contents of the concepts, making it more challenging to ascertain the direction of my writing. From the spring of 2008, I studied phenomenology for approximately two years with the members of the “Study Group for the Language of Public Administration” of the Korean Association for Public Administration and then co-translated books on administrative philosophy. Subsequently, the research group was renamed to the “Study Group for the Administrative Ideology and Methodology.” At the time of writing, this preface as well as the joint translation and research of the books on administrative ethics had almost been completed.1 In translating and learning administrative philosophy and administrative ethics as well as understanding phenomenology, Dr. Kim Jong-Sul, the emeritus professor at Chonnam National University, Dr. Kim Hong-Woo, the emeritus professor at Seoul National University, and Professor Shin Choong-Sik provided considerable help. In particular, Professor Shin Choong-Sik refined the texts as well as the contents of this book. I take this opportunity to express my sincere gratitude to them.
There was an opportunity to present and discuss this manuscript at the “Study Group for the Administrative Ideologies and Methodologies.” I thank the members who attended the presentation and gave their warm encouragement and feedback. I am deeply grateful for the advice by Professor Ha Ho-Soo of Hallym Polytechnic University, although I could not reflect it in the book itself. I would like to express my gratitude to Professor Lee Gwang-Seok of Kyungpook National University, Professor Park Gwang-Guk and Professor Lee Jong-Won of Catholic University of Korea, Professor Kim Byeong-Seop of Seoul National University, and Professor Kim Seong-Joon of Jeju National University for leading the study group.
In the process of writing this humble book, Baek Wan-Ki, the emeritus professor at Korea University, continued to show his support with encouragement. Professor Lee Jeong-Man and Professor Lim Tobin of Seoul National University’s Graduate School of Public Administration as well as Professor Lee Young-Nam of Kwandong.
I am deeply grateful to President Lee Jae-Young of CMPress for publishing my book with serious consideration, and I extend my gratitude to Director Park Young-Ho and the editorial staff for their meticulous editing efforts.
Sin-Taek Kang is currently a Professor Emeritus of Seoul National University Graduate School of Public Administration. He received his Ph.D. in Politics at the University of Pennsylvania. He is well-known for his insightful works in the field of public administration in Korea.
Chapter 1 Introduction
Section 1 New Interests in Administrative Ideology · 1
Section 2 Contents of the Book · 6
Chapter 2 The Historical Context and Institutional Logics of the Political System
Section 1 Interactions Among History, Institutions, and Theories of the Political System · 11
Section 2 · 17
Chapter 3 Public Administration and Administrative Ideology
Section 1 Administrative Ideology · 25
Section 2 Overview of History of Western Administrative Philosophy · 31
Section 3 Administrative Values and Administrative Ethics · 47
Chapter 4 Logics of Public Administration Research
Section 1 Social Ideology and Scientific Theory · 58
Section 2 Levels of Analysis and Levels of Contexts in Administrative Theory · 61
Section 3 Purpose and Method of Public Administration Research I: Empirical Method · 63
Section 4 Purpose and Method of Public Administration Research II: Hermeneutic Method· 67
Section 5 Purpose and Methods of Public Administration Research III: Critical Method · 70
Section 6 The Emphasis on Qualitative Research and Phenomenology · 76
Section 7 Synthesis: Levels of Analysis and Levels of Context of Public Administration and Purpose and Methodology of Research · 81
Chapter 5 Administrative Ideology and Research Logic in Nation-Building Period
Section 1 Nation-State Building and Establishment of Government · 88
Section 2 Liberal State and the Minimal State Theory · 90
Section 3 Public Law Logic and the Modes of Solutions · 94
Section 4 Introduction and Development of Public Administration · 99
Chapter 6 The Administrative Ideology and Logic of Research in the Period of Economic Development
Section 1 Modernization of a Developmental State · 106
Section 2 The Superior Status of Bureaucratic Logic · 109
Section 3 Positive Administrative Ideology of Development Administration · 115
Section 4 Logic of Public Administration Research in the Development Era · 118
Chapter 7 Administrative Ideology and Logic of Research in the Transitional Period
Section 1 Government of the Fifth Republic · 129
Section 2 The Government of the Sixth Republic · 134
Section 3 Rapid Changes Between Institutional Logics · 138
Section 4 The Logic of Public Administration Research in the Transitional Period · 141
Chapter 8 Administrative Ideology and the Logic of Research in the Period of Civil Government
Section 1 Globalization and Postmodernity, Democratization and Civilization · 144
Section 2 Building New Korea and Economic and Social Reform · 146
Section 3 Reinventing Government and Administrative Reform · 149
Section 4 The Logic of Public Administration Research · 155
Chapter 9 Administrative Ideology and Logic of Research in the People’s Government
Section 1 “Peaceful” Regime Change and Financial Crisis · 161
Section 2 Public Reform and Government Innovation · 165
Section 3 The Logic of Public Administration Research in the Period of People’s
Government · 172
Chapter 10 Administrative Ideology and Logic of Research in the Period of Participatory Government
Section 1 Social Conflicts and the Ruling of “Progressive Forces” · 175
Section 2 Ideology and Process of Government Innovation · 179
Section 3 Logic of Public Administration Research During the Period of Participatory
Government · 189
Epilogue · 193