The unfolding of the 21st century has brought the world into a new and different turn. It’s an era of time, speed, and uncertainty. The 4th Industrial revolution is characterized by volatility, uncertainty, complexity, ambiguity. Under is these times of turbulence, innovation is crucial to achieve the transformation of governance under the society 4.0. To achieve innovation and transformation, effective policymaking is indispensable.
As the 21st century unfolds, we are living in a chaotic and turbulent society. Speed of thought becomes very important as information and knowledge is the most critical factor of national competitiveness. To achieve national competitiveness, thereby building a great and strong nation, effective policymaking is crucial to achieve government innovation and national transformation.
Such swirl of information revolution requires an unsullied evaluation of the existing governance model and its operating system. In particular, up until now, the bureaucratic model has led the modern development and its operating system is largely dependent on the steep, rigid, and hierarchical system based on command and control.
But it’s not true in this knowledge society anymore. Ordinary people can access information and knowledge easily; they sometimes know important information before the government. The red-zone disappears; there is no secret. Power shifts. As a result, modern society becomes transparent at an increasing speed. The cooperative or network governance based on e-Governance, in which government consults with its partners, the corporate business, and NGOs in the civil society, with the spirit of trust and collaboration, becomes a more and more effective form of governance in this modern knowledge society, even in the developing countries.
The full integration of knowledge and skills stacked in thousands of years can be attributed to digitization or advancement of information and communication technology(ICT). The concept of time and space was totally obliterated due to the innovation of broadcasting and communication.
How these kinds of enormous change and innovation, swirling from the high-technological environmental changes such as the SMART revolution and the INDUSTRIAL revolution, will impact the academic discipline of policy science, effective policy-making specifically? What should be the new theoretical principle and philosophy of policy science to break-away the so-called criticism of the ‘impoverished professionalism’ facing the science of public administration? And how could we then academically link the theoretical principles of the knowledge-created Smart e-Government with the traditional Policy Science?
This book is written as an attempt to answer these kinds of academic as well as practical questions, searching for a new paradigm of the policy framework to presenting the most appropriate strategy facing the developing countries in this 21st century.
The author uses the theories from the field of public policy, public administration, new public management, and new governance to explain the paradigm of effective policymaking. In short, this book is about the theories and praxis of effective policymaking, especially in developing countries.
Every year a large number of government officials in the developing countries apply for the Global MPA e-Government& Local Innovation Program, the Graduate School of Governance, SKKU, the graduate institution the author is associated, indicates that Korean e-Government and Smart policy framework has a real reputation to be benchmarked from the perspective of developing countries.
The Korean model is really attractive for them, especially because this country has developed its model up to the world best within a few decades, especially from the Korean War-torn ashes of 1953. The country, then receiving ODAs from the then advanced nations, now accomplished the world’s best model and become one of the OECD nations to offer the ODAs to many developing countries. Hence, the lessons from this country, who developed with her own will& commitment, leadership, and policy strategies, would be more plausible and appropriate for the other fellow developing countries who also ardently want to transform their nations to the world-best at this moment.
On a personal note, I owe a profound debt to the dozens of people who have contributed in one way or another to this book. To name their contributions would fill another volume like the size of this one, so I must leave much unsaid. Nevertheless, I must acknowledge the particular contributions of a few people.
I owe my greatest thanks to the CEO of Tadafur Information Technology, Mr. Adil Kassabi who has been a constant source of insight and inspiration. Building upon many conversations and exchanges of our vision and thoughts, we envisioned an ambitious enterprise of setting up a globally leading academic program on effective policy science and digital transformation especially centering on the Middle East and North Africa. This monograph, “POLICY SCIENCE: Effective Policy Making and Smart Policy Framework 4.0” is an academic result of those exchanged thought and reflections.
I would also like to express my gratitude to the Global MPA students at the graduate school of Governance, SKKU in Korea. The SKKU, the institution that I associated, has been operating Global MPA Program in which 20 mid-career officials all around the world came to learn e-Government, Policy Science, and Innovation theories & Praxis of Korea. This book was written to introduce the Policy Science and Smart Governance of Korea when offering those GMPA classes.
With this backdrop, I have discussed this project and received much valuable feedback from the GMPA students. To name a few, I would like to give my special thanks to the GMPA Coordinator Dasol Lee, Mr. Bayoumi Ahmed Bayoumi Nagyeb, a GMPA student from Egypt, Mr. Reginald Ugaddan currently a professor at the University of Philippine, Once Ph.D. student and a GMPA Lecturer at SKKU, and other GMPA students who gave extremely valuable comments and feedback on this book. Also, they have been a great source of strength and inspiration to me during my writings on this monograph. Again, I would like to give my special thanks to them.
Gi-Heon Kwon, Ph.D
Professor of Public Policy & E-Government
Director of Global e-Policy & e-Government Institute,
Graduate School of Governance,
Gi-Heon Kwon, Ph D
Graduate School of SKKU
GePeGi (Global e-Policy & e-Government Institute)
Graduate School of Governance, SKKU
Public Administration, SKKU
[Research Room] Law School B/D Room 320SKKU(SungKyunKwan Univ.)53 Myung Ryun Dong 3-Ga, Jong Rho-Gu, Seoul P.O.BOX 110-745
∙1991-1994 Ph. D in Public Policy,
Graduate School of Arts & Science, Harvard University
∙1989-1991 Masters in Public Policy (MPP),
John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University
∙1983-1985 Masters in Public Administration (MPA),
Graduate School of Public Administration, Seoul National University
∙1979-1983 Bachelor’s Degree in Public Administration (BA),
Han Kook University of Foreign Studies
∙Prime Minister’s Award(Ranked Top among the 26th Senior Government Entrance Exam)
∙Best Thesis Award, APPAM(America Public Policy Analysis & Management Association)
∙Best Thesis Award, Korea Association for Public Administration
∙Academic Scholarship, MPP & Ph.D. in Public Policy, Harvard University
∙Fulbright Visiting Scholar, Maxwell School, Syracuse University, USA(Lecture: e-Government/National Innovation)
∙Best Book Award (two times), Korea National Academy of Science
∙Best Book Award, Ministry of Culture & Tourism
∙Passed the 26th Senior Government Entrance Exam (1982)
∙2015-2016 President Korean Association for Policy Studies
∙2009-2010 Editor in Chief, Korean Association for Policy Studies
∙2008 Chairman, Special Research Committee, Korean Association for Policy Studies
∙2005-2007 Editorial Committee, Korean Association for Policy Studies
∙2005 Chairman, Academic Information Committee, Korea Association for Public Administration
∙2004 Chairman, Special Policy Case Committee, Korean Association for Policy Studies
∙2003-2005 Editorial Committee, Korean Association for Public Administration
∙2021 Reflection on Policy Science
∙2020 Life After COVID-19 Crisis
∙2019 Wisdom of Policy Science
∙2018 Concert of Policy Science
Feast of Policy Science
∙2017 Government 4.0
∙2014 E-Government and E-Strategies:
Explaining Successful Conditions of Korean e-Government
∙2014 Lectures on Public Administration
∙2014 Lectures on Policy Science
∙2014 How to Reform Public Enterprises?
∙2013 Electronic Government
∙2013 What is the Justice of the Nation?
Concert of Public Administration
∙2010 Theories of Policy Analysis
∙2009 Theories of Public Administration
∙2008 Theories of Future Foresight
∙2008 The Logic of Public Policy
∙2008 Theories of Public Policy
∙2004 Public Management Information System
∙e-Government & e-Policy
∙Theories on Policy Science
PART 1 POLICY DESIGN: EFFECTIVE POLICY MAKING AND SMART POLICY FRAMEWORK
Chapter 1 EFFECTIVE POLICY MAKING 3
Chapter 2 ATTITUDE CHANGE 29
Chapter 3 SMART POLICY FRAMEWORK 4.0 61
PART 2 POLICY PARADIGM & MODELS
Chapter 4 POLICY PARADIGM 87
Chapter 5 POLICY MODEL 103
PART 3 POLICY ANALYSIS & IMPLEMENTATION
Chapter 6 POLICY ANALYSIS & EVALUATION 147
Chapter 7 POLICY IMPLEMENTATION AND ACTION 183
PART 4 THE 4TH INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
Chapter 8 The 4TH INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION & LEADERSHIP 223
Chapter 9 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION 241